The standoffs between Indian and Chinese troops in Ladakh on the Line of Actual Control (LAC), where initial steps towards disengagement have taken place, are around a number of patrolling points or PPs in Galwan, Hot Springs and Gogra areas.
PPs are patrolling points identified and marked on the LAC, which are patrolled with a stipulated frequency by the security forces. They serve as a guide to the location of the LAC for the soldiers, acting as indicators of the extent of ‘actual control’ exercised on the territory by India.
By regularly patrolling up to these PPs, the Indian side is able to establish and assert its physical claim about the LAC.
No. Some of the PPs are prominent and identifiable geographical features, such as a pass, or a nala junction where no numerals are given. Only those PPs, where there are no prominent features, are numbered as in the case of PP14 in Galwan Valley.
Mostly, yes. Except for the Depsang plains in northern Ladakh, where PP10, PP11, PP11A, PP12 and PP13 – from Raki Nala to Jivan Nala – do not fall on the LAC. These are short of the LAC, on the Indian side.