Unlike its potential adversaries China and Pakistan, India has yet to adopt Air Independent Power (AIP) for its submarines. Also known as Air Independent Propulsion, this technology allows a non-nuclear submarine to operate for longer without having to surface. This makes it harder to detect and allows it to patrol in high-risk areas for longer.
But AIP is coming to Indian submarines. The current Kalvari class boats are expected to receive an Indian-made system. This should greatly increase the potency of India’s non-nuclear submarines.
Indian engineers have been working on an indigenous AIP system. Engineering firm Larsen & Toubro has built and tested a prototype system that fits inside the Kalvari’s hull. The company is also involved in India’s indigenous nuclear-powered submarine.